Cloud Environment


Brief Description:

illustrates a Cloud computing node 100 in accordance with one embodiment.

Detailed Description:

As shown in Figure 1, computer system/server 102 in Cloud computing node 100 is shown in the form of a general-purpose computing device. The components of computer system/server 102 may include, but are not limited to, one or more processors or processing units 104, a system memory 106 , and a bus 126 that couples various system components including system memory 106 to processor processing units 104.

Bus 126 represents one or more of any of several types of bus structures, including a memory bus or memory controller, a peripheral bus, an accelerated graphics port, and a processor or local bus using any of a variety of bus architectures. By way of example, and not limitation, such architectures include Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) bus, Micro Channel Architecture (MCA) bus, Enhanced ISA (EISA) bus, Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA) local bus, and Peripheral Component Interconnects (PCI) bus.

Computer system/server 102 typically includes a variety of computer system readable media. Such media may be any available media that is accessible by computer system/server 102, and it includes both volatile and non-volatile media, removable and non-removable media.

System memory 106 can include computer system readable media in the form of volatile memory, such as Random access memory (RAM) 108 and/or cache memory 110. Computer system/server 102 may further include other removable/non-removable, volatile/non-volatile computer system storage media. By way of example only, a storage system 112 can be provided for reading from and writing to a non-removable, non-volatile magnetic media (not shown and typically called a “hard drive”). Although not shown, a magnetic disk drive for reading from and writing to a removable, non-volatile magnetic disk (e.g., a “floppy disk”) and an optical disk drive for reading from or writing to a removable, non-volatile optical disk such as a CD-ROM, DVD-ROM or other optical media can be provided. In such instances, each can be connected to bus 126 by one or more data media interfaces. As will be further depicted and described below, system memory 106 may include at least one program product having a set (e.g., at least one) of program modules that are configured to carry out the functions of the invention.

Program/utility 114 having a set (at least one) of program modules 116 may be stored in system memory 106 by way of example, and not limitation, as well as an operating system, one or more application programs, other program modules, and program data. Each of the operating system, one or more application programs, other program modules, and program data or some combination thereof, may include an implementation of a networking environment. Program modules 116 generally carry out the functions and/or methodologies of the invention as described herein.

Computer system/server 102 may also communicate with one or more external devices 122 such as a keyboard, a pointing device, a display 120, etc.; one or more devices that enable a user to interact with computer system/server 102; and/or any devices (e.g., network card, modem, etc.) that enable computer system/server 102 to communicate with one or more other computing devices. Such communication can occur via I/O interfaces 118. Still yet, computer system/server 102 can communicate with one or more networks such as a local area network (LAN), a general wide area network (WAN), and/or a public network (e.g., the Internet) via network adapter 124. As depicted, network adapter 124 communicates with the other components of computer system/server 102 via bus 126. It should be understood that although not shown, other hardware and/or software components could be used in conjunction with computer system/server 102. Examples include, but are not limited to: microcode, device drivers, redundant processing units, external disk drive arrays, RAID systems, tape drives, and data archival storage systems, etc.

Brief Description:

illustrates an item 200 in accordance with one embodiment.

Detailed Description:

Referring now to Figure 2, illustrative cloud computing environment 210 is depicted. As shown, cloud computing environment 210 comprises one or more Cloud computing node 100 with which computing devices such as, for example, personal digital assistant (PDA) or cellular telephone 204, desktop computer , laptop desktop computer 208, and/or automobile computer system 206 communicate. This allows for infrastructure, platforms, and/or software to be offered as services (as described above in Section I) from cloud computing environment 210, so as to not require each client to separately maintain such resources. It is understood that the types of computing devices shown in Figure 2 are intended to be illustrative only and that cloud computing environment 210 can communicate with any type of computerized device over any type of network and/or network/addressable connection (e.g., using a web browser).

Brief Description:

illustrates an item 300 in accordance with one embodiment.

Detailed Description:

Referring now to Figure 3, a set of functional abstraction layers provided by cloud computing environment 210 ( Figure 2) is shown. It should be understood in advance that the components, layers, and functions shown in Figure 3 are intended to be illustrative only, and the invention is not limited thereto. As depicted, the following layers and corresponding functions are provided:

hardware and software layer 308 includes hardware and software components. Examples of hardware components include mainframes. In one example, IBM® zSeries® systems and RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) architecture based servers. In one example, IBM pSeries® systems, IBM xSeries® systems, IBM BladeCenter® systems, storage devices, networks, and networking components. Examples of software components include network application server software. In one example, IBM WebSphere® application server software and database software. In one example, IBM DB2® database software. (IBM, zSeries, pSeries, xSeries, BladeCenter, WebSphere, and DB2 are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both.)

Virtualization layer 306 provides an abstraction layer from which the following exemplary virtual entities may be provided: virtual servers; virtual storage; virtual networks, including virtual private networks; virtual applications; and virtual clients.

Management layer 304 provides the exemplary functions described below. Resource provisioning provides dynamic procurement of computing resources and other resources that are utilized to perform tasks within the Cloud computing environment. Metering and Pricing provide cost tracking as resources are utilized within the Cloudcomputing environment, and billing or invoicing for consumption of these resources. In one example, these resources may comprise application software licenses. Security provides identity verification for users and tasks, as well as protection for data and other resources. User portal provides access to the Cloud computing environment for both users and system administrators. Service level management provides Cloud computing resource allocation and management such that required service levels are met. Service Level Agreement (SLA) planning and fulfillment provides pre-arrangement for, and procurement of, Cloud computing resources for which a future requirement is anticipated in accordance with an SLA.

Workloads layer 302 provides functionality for which the Cloudcomputing environment is utilized. Examples of workloads and functions which may be provided from this layer include: mapping and navigation; software development and lifecycle management; virtual classroom education delivery; data analytics processing; transaction processing; and resource credit management. As mentioned above, all of the foregoing examples described with respect to Figure 3 are illustrative only, and the invention is not limited to these examples.

Parts List


Cloud computing node


computer system/server


processing units


system memory


Random access memory (RAM)


cache memory


storage system




program modules


I/O interfaces




external devices


network adapter








cellular telephone


automobile computer system


desktop computer


cloud computing environment




workloads layer


management layer


virtualization layer


hardware and software layer


Broad network access

capabilities are available over a network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e.g., mobile phones, laptops, and PDAs).

Community Cloud

the Cloud infrastructure is shared by several organizations and supports a specific community that has shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). It may be managed by the organizations or a third party and may exist on-premises or off-premises.

Private Cloud

the Cloud infrastructure is operated solely for an organization. It may be managed by the organization or a third party and may exist on-premises or off-premises.

Hybrid Cloud

the Cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more Clouds (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability (e.g., Cloud bursting for load-balancing between Clouds).

Resource pooling

the provider’s computing resources are pooled to serve multiple consumers using a multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand. There is a sense of location independence in that the customer generally has no control or knowledge over the exact location of the provided resources but may be able to specify location at a higher level of abstraction (e.g., country, state, or datacenter). Examples of resources include storage, processing, memory, network bandwidth, and virtual machines.

Cloud Platform as a Service (PaaS)

the capability provided to the consumer is to deploy onto the Cloud infrastructure consumer-created or acquired applications created using programming languages and tools supported by the provider. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying Cloud infrastructure including networks, servers, operating systems, or storage, but has control over the deployed applications and possibly application hosting environment configurations.

Cloud Software as a Service (SaaS)

the capability provided to the consumer is to use the provider’s applications running on a Cloud infrastructure. The applications are accessible from various client devices through a thin client interface such as a web browser (e.g., web-based email). The consumer does not manage or control the underlying Cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, storage, or even individual application capabilities, with the possible exception of limited user-specific application configuration settings.

Public Cloud

the Cloud infrastructure is made available to the general public or a large industry group and is owned by an organization selling Cloud services.

Cloud computing

a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. This Cloud model promotes availability and is comprised of at least five characteristics, at least three service models, and at least four deployment models.

On-demand self-service

a consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities, such as server time and network storage, as needed, automatically without requiring human interaction with each service’s provider.

Measured service

cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource use by leveraging a metering capability at some level of abstraction appropriate to the type of service (e.g., storage, processing, bandwidth, and active user accounts). Resource usage can be monitored, controlled, and reported providing transparency for both the provider and consumer of the utilized service.

Cloud Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)

the capability provided to the consumer is to provision processing, storage, networks, and other fundamental computing resources where the consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary software, which can include operating systems and applications. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying Cloud infrastructure but has control over operating systems, storage, deployed applications, and possibly limited control of select networking components (e.g., host firewalls).

Rapid elasticity

capabilities can be rapidly and elastically provisioned, in some cases automatically, to quickly scale out and rapidly released to quickly scale in. To the consumer, the capabilities available for provisioning often appear to be unlimited and can be purchased in any quantity at any time.